Familiarity with all computer parts and hardware

Familiarity with all computer parts and hardware

Familiarity with all computer parts and hardware
Familiarity with all computer parts and hardware

The components and elements inside a computer case are called computer hardware. Among the computer hardware (accessories), we can mention hard drive, RAM, graphics, etc. Computer hardware consists of several parts, but the most important part is the motherboard. Because all the components inside the case are connected to the motherboard so that your system has its own working process. In computers, hardware and software are interconnected. Without software, a computer’s hardware will have no function. Also, without hardware installation (to perform tasks by the software through the central processing unit), the efficiency of the software will be useless. Computer hardware is limited to tasks that are designed to be independent and very simple. Software implements algorithms (problem solutions) that allow a computer to perform much more complex tasks.

Case, protective role in computer hardware – types of computer hardware

Bags, while useless without computer hardware, serve as a power supply protector. If you take all the hardware out of the case, you will find the drive racks and expansion slots well. 3.5-inch and 5-inch shelves can be used to hold hard drives and disk drives. Today, however, there are small cases called “mini-cases” that have much smaller shelves that reach 1.4 inches. Development slots are located on the back of the cases, and they are designed and cut in such a way that components and hardware can be easily attached to the motherboard.

Motherboard, the most important part of computer hardware – types of computer hardware

In computer hardware, the electrical circuit board on which all components and hardware, including CPU, Ram, etc. are installed, is called the motherboard. The set of slots used to connect peripherals, including sound, graphics, and RAM cards, are called expansion card sections. Development cards allow you to upgrade these components in addition to installing them. Slots in the back of the case are used to place connectors and connect cables and external accessories. Graphics processors (CPUs), sockets and memory slots, BIOS (batteries), drive connectors, etc. are installed on this circuit board.

Asus, GIGABYTE, Intel, etc. are the main manufacturers of motherboards. The current version of motherboards is DDR4, which supports the new and advanced generation. To identify the alignment of your motherboard, just install the CPU-Z software and see the volume of your motherboard from the Mainboard section.

CPU, the smart brain among computer hardware – types of computer hardware

Among computer hardware, in the technology industry, the CPU is the brain of the computer. Your computer is responsible for processing the input and output information of the CPU. In fact, CPUs are electronic chips that perform processing, logic, math, and control operations. Microprocessors are the most important part of a computer.

The CPU itself consists of the following parts:

Unit of arithmetic and logic
Stable memory
Control unit
Fast memory

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is an important part of the CPU that performs computational operations (such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), data comparison operations (smaller and larger), and logic operations (such as OR). And AND).

The function of the Control Unit (CU) is to control the receipt of data from the input unit, to control the internal operations of the CPU, and to control the transmission of information to the output unit. This unit acts like a nervous system to control other parts of the computer.
Registers are small units of memory used to quickly and temporarily store results in the CPU. There are several registers in each CPU.
Fast or cache memory is very high speed memory, which is intended to increase CPU performance.

CPU speed is measured in terms of the number of instructions it can execute per second, and is measured in MHz (million commands per second) or GHz (billion commands per second).

Advanced CPUs up to version 7 are now supported on next generation systems. You can find your system CPU in GHz in the properties menu in My Computer.
Graphics Card Representative of Computer Hardware Visual Interface – Types of Computer Hardware
In computer hardware, although graphics seem to be the interface between the monitor and the computer, they actually have potentials that are not found in any part of a computer. You perform professional operations such as recording and editing movies, advanced computer games and even watching movies through this hardware. Modern graphics cards are supported up to GTX versions. Inexpensive graphics cards are no longer responsive to advanced games, and GTX and RX models are now being used instead of previous generations of GT. Graphics card inputs and inputs are divided into DVI, HDMI and VGI. Intel graphics cards are mostly used in software and AMD Redon graphics cards are mostly used in advanced games (gaming).

RAM, electronic memory of computer hardware – types of computer hardware
The electronic memory of computer hardware is RAM. Main Memory is the storage area of ​​your computers that microprocessors have direct access to. Primary memory is a critical memory in your system without which a computer can not run and run programs. Due to the high access speed, this type of memory is divided into integrated circuits and divided into two forms: RAM and ROM.
RAM is an electronic memory, in which high performance, applications are placed to run. These types of memory are read and write, so that they can both read and write information. The computer starts writing information to the RAM in the first empty space. But the important thing is that this information is never reviewed. As a result, the write speed on this type of memory is maximized. For this reason, this type of memory is also called “random access memory”. RAM is an electronic memory that is activated when your computers are turned on and lost information when the computer is turned off.
ROM is an electronic memory that contains instructions for identifying, controlling, and operating a computer. In the ROM, no information is entered or exited, and no information is erased when the power is turned off and the system is turned off. Computer users do not have access to this memory, and the computer automatically reads and executes its instructions when it is turned on.

Power, the power supply of computer hardware – types of computer hardware
Power, which is actually the power supply of computer hardware, is responsible for powering various computer components. Older power supplies are no longer capable of processing and supplying power to various components of modern motherboards. Therefore, the designers and manufacturers of the power supply have provided power supplies that can provide the necessary and sufficient power supply on advanced motherboards. One of these power supplies is the Green model, which has amazing processing capabilities. Power supplies actually receive city electricity and transmit it to various computer components.

Hard drive, your data storage among computer hardware – types of computer hardware
Your data is stored on PC hardware, Windows hard drives or drives. Whenever you try to save a project (such as a movie, music, file, etc.), it is actually saved on your hard drive. So the main task of the hard drive among the hardware is to constantly protect your information. The information inside the hard drive remains on the sectors until it is deleted. Hard drives have different parts.

Actuator: This part of the hard drive is responsible for controlling different parts. It’s actually called the hard brain.

Head Arm: It is called the mechanical arm part of the hard drive, which is the most central point of the hard drive.

Read / Write: Read and write data and information from this section.

Platter: The plotter protects your data and information.

Spindle: Through this section, the targets can read and write data and information on different parts of the hard drive.

Hard drives are divided into two categories: HDD and SSD. HDDs are the most used among users and SSDs are mostly used by users who need high speed operating systems. In fact, SSD hard drives are a set of drives that are used to process data in operating systems at the highest speed. PATA and SATA cables are among the cables that are connected to the motherboard via hard drive.

Sound card, computer hardware audio converter – all kinds of computer hardware
Among computer hardware, the sound card is responsible for transferring audio files to audio players. In fact, every time you play a song, the CPU receives information and transmits it to the sound card. Finally, the sound card sends the received information to the speaker and the desired music is played. Despite the external sound card, there are sound cards that are mostly designed in the form of a USB output interface, which is mostly used when the internal sound card has a problem. Most sound cards require driver installation. In fact, the sound card is an interface circuit between the speaker and the information received in the CPU.

DVD-ROM, Computer Hardware Supplement – Types of Computer Hardware
CDs and DVDs are played on your system via DVD-ROMs. You can access the contents of CDs and DVDs through this computer hardware. Despite reading CDs and DVDs, DVD-ROMs also have the ability to write or burn. With most software, such as Nero and ImgBurn, you can burn multiple files, such as movies and music, to raw CDs and DVDs. Internal DVD-ROMs are connected to the motherboard and computer power (power), and external DVD-ROMs called Slim Portable today can well replace internal DVD-ROMs.

BIOS, one of the computer hardware in the Rom category – types of computer hardware
BIOS stands for Basic Input / Output System among computer hardware and is actually a special electronic chip that is located on your computer motherboards and has the necessary content to run the operating system software. has it. BIOS is a type of Rom memory, also called a battery. ROM, which is read-only memory, unlike RAM, does not store temporary information, and the information in this chip can not be deleted or modified. Therefore, after turning off the system without user access, the information is deleted. There are also Flash BIOS types that can be deleted and eventually replaced with newer versions on the motherboard, see Ram for comparison between BIOS and Ram.

Computer ports, effective user interfaces among computer hardware – types of computer hardware
Serial ports (serial): Among computer hardware, serial ports are actually sockets located on the back of your computer. These ports allow you to add new hardware such as mice or modes. These ports are usually called Com1 or Com2. The word Com is actually derived from the word Communication meaning communication, so a abbreviated Com Port is a Communication Port.

USB ports: USB ports are new in the world of technology. You can connect multiple devices to the same port as converters and create different ports from them. In the past, you had to disconnect one device from the system and connect another device. But this is not necessary today. Apart from mobile phones, digital cameras and webcams are among the devices that use the USB port. USB3 is faster than LPT and Com ports in data exchange. As a result, USB3 ports are able to transfer data faster between computers and peripherals.
Parallel ports: Parallel ports such as Com Port that allow you to connect new equipment such as printers and scanners to your computer. The parallel port is commonly known as LPT1 or LPT2. In the image below, you can see the names of all the ports.


Check the types of hard disks and their features

Check the types of hard disks and their features

Hard disks used in servers and personal computers have a direct impact on the speed and performance of systems. In this article, we are going to get acquainted with the technology of different types of hard disks that are used in servers and networks.

NVMe hard drive

NVMe Memory is an efficient, high-performance host control interface with a simple set of commands and user interface. This memory is made for data centers, systems and companies that use non-volatile memory.

NVM Express focuses on enhancing performance and interoperability across a wide range of client and enterprise systems. NVM Express, like other solid state memory, uses a parallel level and is fully utilized by the host software and hardware. As a result, it reduces input / output overhead and makes many improvements over other logical device interfaces, such as reduced latency, long, multiple command queues. A distinctive feature of NVM Express is that it does not require a registry to provide a command.


This type of hard drive also has a simple storage stack. Both factors combine to help NVM Express achieve low latency. NVM Express provides a standard software interface standard for PCI solid-state devices, so there are no compatibility issues. NVM Express is highly optimized for memory-based storage.

NVM Express has many benefits. Significantly improves sequential and random performance due to reduced latency. Therefore, it has the ability to access more data in each CPU cycle. Another advantage of NVM Express is that it provides a standards-based approach that allows PCIe solid-state device collaboration. Compared to SATA-based solid state devices, NVM Express devices consume less power and have higher I / O performance per second. With multiple queues, NVM Express ensures that the CPU is reaching its full potential.

SSD hard drive

Solid state drive (SSD) is an electronic storage drive based on solid state architecture. SSDs are built with NAND and NOR flash memory to store non-volatile data and dynamic random access memory (DRAM). An SSD drive and a magnetic hard drive (HDD) have a similar purpose. An SSD is also known as a solid state drive (SSD) or electronic drive.

SSDs incorporate storage methods into microchip-based flash drives, where data is stored electronically on flash memory chips.

SSD has two main components. Flash memory: Has storage memory. Controller: A built-in microprocessor that processes functions such as error handling, data recovery, and encryption.


SCSI hard disk

Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a group of ANSI electronic interfaces that allow PCs to communicate with peripheral hardware, including tape drives, disk drives, printers, CD-ROMs, scanners, and more. Communications using SCSI are faster and more flexible than basic parallel data interfaces.
SSD hard drive

The latest version is 16-bit SCSI (Ultra-640) Fast-320. This version has been available since 2003 with a transfer speed of 640 Mbps. SCSI can connect to 16 devices using a cable up to 12 meters.

SCSI-2 or higher is capable of supporting up to seven peripherals including CD-ROM and scanner. These peripherals can be connected to a single SCSI port on a bus. SCSI ports were originally designed for Unix and Apple Macintosh computers. However, they can also be used on personal computers.

Even if not all devices can support all SCSI levels, SCSI standards are usually compatible with previous versions. In PCs, USB has replaced SCSI interfaces in most cases. However, corporate-level clients still use server-based SCSI for hard disk controllers.

SATA hard drive

SATA is a computer interface used to connect host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as optical drives and a variety of hard disks. This interface is commonly used to connect hard drives to a host system, such as a computer motherboard.

SATA has many advantages over ATA and PATA. Most features are instant switching and fast data transfer speed. Instant replacement is the ability to replace computer system components without having to turn off the system. Older systems had to be turned off before replacing or installing system modules. SATA data rate of 6 Gbps is also much faster than ATA and PATA.


What is the difference between SAS (SCSI) and SATA hard drives?

Although SATA and SCSI hard drives are very similar, there are some fundamental differences. SATA hard drives typically cost less, making them more common among consumers. SATA hard drives are known for their outstanding storage capacity and better performance compared to SCSI drives. Because of their high storage capacity, SATA drives are commonly used for file sharing, email, web, backup, and archiving.

On the other hand, SCSI hard drives are more reliable than SATA drives. SCSI drives are designed to participate in major applications with 24/7 usage and transmission speeds of up to 15,000 rpm. SCSI drives are valuable in systems where speed is more important. SCSI drives have no storage compared to SATA drives but perform better. If you are looking for more reliable storage capacity than SATA drives, SCSI drives offer higher capacity.

Advantages of SSD hard drives and its differences with SATA and SCSI

SSDs offer up to 100 times more power than traditional hard drives, which means faster boot and better overall system performance. Unlike SCSI and SATA drives, SSDs have no removable drives, making them the safest and most efficient option. Lack of moving parts also means reducing the risk of failure and increasing energy efficiency compared to traditional hard drives. SSDs are usually more expensive than SCSI and SATA hard drives because of their performance, speed, and reliability benefits. SSDs are ideal for high frequency instant data such as databases, CRMs or banking transactions.

The place of NVMe in all types of hard drives

NVMe is a faster interface for SSD speeds. As SSDs began to replace HDDs in computers, a new interface was needed to support high-speed SSDs.
The place of NVMe in all types of hard drives

NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory) is an interface protocol designed specifically for all types of SSDs. NVMe uses SSD with PCI Express to transfer data. NVMe enables fast storage on PC SSDs and is an improvement over older hard disk drive (HDD) interfaces such as SATA and SAS. The only reason to use SATA and SCSI despite the SSD in computers is that until recently, only HDDs that are slower than the new technology have been used as high-capacity storage in computers. Flash memory is used in mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, USB drives and SD cards. (SSDs are flash memory.)

It is currently the main source of storage for smartphones and tablets. SSDs are now more expensive than hard drives and are often used as cache along with HDDs to speed up computer systems.

NVMe-based SSDs use PCIe to reduce latency over SSDs. The factors that the NVMe protocol uses must be somehow connected to the PCIe inside the computer. To date, NVMe connections can be made via a PCIe expansion card, a 2.5-inch U.2 connector, or a small M.2 form factor.



Computer RAM Buying Guide

Computer RAM Buying Guide

Let’s start with a question: Do you want to upgrade your computer and you do not have enough money to buy a powerful graphics card or professional CPU? The simplest solution in such a situation is to upgrade the computer’s RAM. Upgrading RAM, while low cost, can have a tangible impact on overall computer performance and give you higher speeds. Until now, the use of 8 GB of RAM in computers was a minimum standard, and now with the introduction of new games, most manufacturers recommend the use of at least 16 GB. But choosing a good RAM is not just about determining its value. There are several factors involved in choosing a good RAM that can make you a better buyer. You should also pay attention to things like speed, latency and number of channels before buying, and this is where choosing a RAM becomes a bit difficult. By reading this shopping guide, you can buy Rome more consciously.

Size and structural form

There are two general structural forms of RAM, one called DIMM and the other called SO-DIMM. The two, despite their many technological and practical similarities, should not be confused. The main difference is in the size of these modules. DIMMs are larger and more elongated and are used in desktop computers. But SO-DIMM is smaller and is therefore used in All in One laptops and computers.

Types of RAM memory

RAMs come in a variety of forms and are recognizable by their DDR standard numbering. DDR standards, identified by the order of their numbers, have been introduced to DDR4, and each has improved over the previous generation. In general, each generation of DDR is faster than the previous generation, consumes less power and reduces latency. A limiting factor for the user is that not every generation of this memory can be used on a computer designed for the previous generation. Because DDR standards differ in the number of connection pins and the distance between the middle slot of the module. For example, in the DIMM model, we saw 204 pins in DDR3 RAM, and now the number of pins in desktop DDR4 RAMs has reached 288. Therefore, for a computer designed to use DDR3 RAM, you can not use DDR4 RAM. Every computer motherboard accepts only one type of this standard, and it is this motherboard that does not allow the use of different types. If you do not know what kind of memory is on your computer, you may be able to tell from the time of purchase of the computer:

DDR model: It was used in computers in 2002.

DDR2 model: was introduced in mid-2002 and has been used in computers ever since.

DDR3 model: has been used in computers since 2007 (2007) and has had the greatest influence in the computer market.

DDR4 model: was introduced in 2014 (2014) and is the fastest standard of this family so far.


RAM capacity and configuration

We are now living in an era where the use of three and four gigabytes of RAM in mobile phones has become natural. In such a situation, it is not at all strange that computers use 8 and 16 GB of RAM and even more. Now that RAMs are reasonably priced, it is no longer permissible to think about cost savings when buying RAM. Now, for a simple computer whose tasks are limited to opening a few text files and browsing the web, at least 8 GB of RAM is recommended. For those who want to build a computer for 3D modeling, editing or gaming purposes, the choice of less than 16 GB will not make sense. Some may be hesitant to choose between faster memory with less capacity and slower memory with more capacity. In such cases, it is better to put more capacity as the first priority and choose the memory with the maximum possible capacity.

In addition, you should pay attention to the number of channels on the agenda. In today’s market, we see single-channel, two-channel and four-channel rams, each with its own definition. In general, increasing the number of channels or using a multi-channel system in RAMs will increase the available bandwidth. In this way, RAM can move more data at any time. Instead of buying one high-capacity single-channel RAM, buy two half-capacity RAMs of the first model and use them in dual-channel mode.

Speed ​​and delay schedule

The speed of RAM is expressed in MHz and is not out of certain numbers. For example, between 2133 MHz and 2400 MHz, there is no other frequency, and your memory must have one of the valid frequencies. There are two types of representations for frequency that are actually equivalent and are converted to each other by a simple formula. For example, you may sometimes see the term DDR3-1600 and sometimes you may encounter PC3-12800. In these two expressions, the number that comes after DDR and PC refers to the type of memory module and the end number represents the frequency. In terms of DDR, the terminal number refers directly to the frequency (in MHz), and the number used in the PC display refers to the maximum data transfer rate in megabytes per second. The second number is obtained by multiplying the principal frequency by the number eight; That is, if you see a memory module that states the frequency with the phrase PC, quickly divide the prime number by eight to get to the original frequency. Regarding the frequency or the speed of RAM, it is important to pay attention to two points. The first is to always try to get the fastest memory, and the second is to make sure that the RAM frequency is compatible with the maximum frequency supported by your motherboard. All motherboard manufacturers declare the maximum supported frequency for their product RAM slots. If your RAM frequency is higher than the maximum frequency supported by your motherboard, the RAM will run at a slower speed than its original speed.

Another factor is the latency of RAM, which is represented by three- or four-digit expressions. Each of these numbers represents a specific type of delay, the most famous of which is the first. The first number is known as CAS Latency, which is denoted by the clock cycle and is denoted by CL. This delay time is actually the time between sending the command and executing it. There is a special relationship between memory latency and its speed, which is very important to understand. The higher the memory frequency and the shorter the latency, the better the memory performance. Many people only pay attention to the frequency and number of CL and find that the higher the frequency, the higher the number of CL. For this reason, some people think that due to the increase in CAS delay with increasing frequency, part of the declared speed is practically unattainable. But the truth is that with increasing frequency, the latency decreases or remains almost constant at worst.

The reason for this can be explained as follows: The number expressed for CL represents the number of hour cycles that take from the time the command is sent to its execution and is in no way related to the amount of time elapsed per second. Each clock cycle has its own specific time value in nanoseconds (ns), and the final latency must be obtained by multiplying the number of cycles by the time value of each cycle. The value of each cycle can be obtained by inverting the memory frequency; Because according to a physical law, the period is the inverse of the frequency. For example, if a DDR3 RAM is provided at 533 MHz and CL7, each clock cycle would be 1.533000000 seconds, which is equivalent to 1.87 nanoseconds. Now in this memory the real value of CAS is equal to 13.09 nanoseconds. If we want to make a simple comparison, consider another DDR4 RAM with a frequency of 800 MHz and CL9. In this memory, the value of each cycle will be 1.25 nanoseconds, and by multiplying it by 9, a delay of 11.25 nanoseconds will be obtained. You can see that despite the higher CL number in the DDR4 example, the actual latency was lower. This is because the initial frequency of DDR4 memory production is higher than that of DDR3s, which reduces the time value of each cycle.

Actual delay = number of clock cycles x time per clock cycle

The problem is that all RAM makers suffice to express the latency to the value of CL and write only this value on the memory. With CL, only one component of the above equation will be available, which cannot be used to determine the latency. If you want to judge the response speed of a memory module, you have to look at it from a nanosecond perspective. In the table below you can see an example of this fact and see how a module with more CL may have less latency. Now what is the result of all this talk? Surely the question has arisen for you, how can one finally choose one of the available RAM modules? Our advice is to pay attention only to the MHz speed and choose the highest frequency that matches your pocket. Rest assured that as the frequency increases, the actual latency remains virtually unchanged.

Now that you understand the difference between different types of RAM and your understanding of frequency and time latency, choosing a good RAM is no longer a difficult task. Just pay attention to your needs and choose a good model from a reputable manufacturer for yourself. Remember that more capacity is always better than more speed. Most of the capacity is the undisputed king of the Roman world.